By A. Harden
This sourcebook offers specially-prepared translations from Greek and Latin texts throughout a number of genres which offer a wide-reaching feel of where of the non-human animal within the ethical sign in of Classical Greece and Rome. From theories of the origins of animal existence and vegetarianism, literary makes use of of animal imagery and its position in formulating cultural identification, to shiny descriptions of vivisection, force-feeding, in depth farming, agricultural and armed forces exploitation, and special money owed of animal-hunting and the alternate in unique animal items: the battleground of the trendy animal rights debate is the following given its old starting place in a range of approximately 2 hundred passages of Classical authors from Homer to Porphyry.
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Extra info for Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts
But to whom would they give it? And it would be rather out of place to think of them as having currency and that sort of thing. Temperance, then. What about that? But to praise the gods for not having tawdry desires would be rather vulgar. Going through all this, it would seem that these things are insignificant and unworthy of the gods. Yet they are always conceived of as living, and moreover as doing things (for indeed they are not sleeping, like Endymion). So for living things, if we remove actions, and, in fact, the capacity for action, what is left except contemplation?
Here Aristotle, drawing on a detailed discussion of actions and thoughts, gives serious consideration to the highest virtue and concludes that it is a state of theôria (contemplation) because of the closeness of theôria to divinity and its status as an activity undertaken by the divine: its particular relevance here is in Aristotle’s explicit and definite exclusion of animals from this type of mental process, and this preconception stems ultimately from the fact that animals’ apparent inability to articulate words precludes them from subsequent and specifically human mental processes.
Later it happened that they were born from one another. And men were separated from the other animals, and set up leaders, customs, arts, cities (and so on). Mind (nous), he says, is an integral part of all creatures alike. For each of the animals use mind, some rather slowly, others more quickly. The details are rather difficult to piece together, though it seems that rather than expressing the view that mankind occupies a naturally privileged state, ‘Archelaus saw the development of culture and technologies as an inevitable result of the seemingly accidental human possession of nous to a greater degree than the other animals ...
Animals in the Classical World: Ethical Perspectives from Greek and Roman Texts by A. Harden